* Hydraulic fracking is the key technology used in developing non-traditional reserves, whereby the pressure of liquid being forced into strata causes a network of fissures to form: held open by proppant, these fissures allow liquid hydrocarbons to flow into the well.
** Xanthan gum is a promising biological source for fracking fluids, being a water-soluble polysaccharide produced by fermenting Xanthomonascampestris bacteria from any high-sugar material — such as corn, wheat, dairy waste, etc.
*** Guar gum is a plant-based mud- (drilling-fluid) thickener, traditionally used to produce fracking gel. It is produced from guar beans, a legume crop.
**** Proppant is a granular material used to stop the fissures formed under strata pressure from closing up during fracking.