* The Bazhenov Formation comprises a group of oil-bearing rocks covering an area of approximately one million square kilometres in Western Siberia. The formation lies at a depth of two to three kilometres. Provisional forecasts indicate geological reserves at the Bazhenov Formation to be in the order of 18 to 60 billion tonnes. There are not, currently, any effective technologies for working with the Bazhenov Formation.
** The Cyber-Fracking 2.0 simulator was developed by the Gazprom Neft Science and Technology Centre as part of a consortium including the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Skoltech, the St Petersburg Polytechnic University, and the Institute of Hydrodynamics. A commercial version of this digital tool — designed to improve fracking quality to increase well inflow — has been released.
The programme covers various types of fracking — i.e., for traditional and hard-to-recover reserves — and takes various types of wells into account. The uniqueness of this development lies in its mathematical algorithms, which make it possible to select the right combination of fracking specifications for strata injection, as well as ensuring optimum efficiency in operating under different conditions.